Planned in the late 1940s as one of Scotland’s first post-second world war new town+s its original purpose was to house miners who were to work at a newly established coal mine, the Rothes Colliery.
Following the failure of the mine the town developed as an important industrial centre in Scotland’s Silicon Glen+ between 1961 and 2000 with several major electronics and hi-tech companies setting up facilities in the town.
The Glenrothes Development Corporation (GDC), a non-departmental public body, was established to develop, manage and promote the new town. The GDC supported by the local authority oversaw the governance of Glenrothes until the wind-up of the GDC in 1995, after which all responsibility was transferred to Fife Council+.
Glenrothes is the administrative capital of Fife containing both the Fife Council and Police Scotland+ Fife Division headquarters. Home to Fife’s main concentration of specialist manufacturing and engineering companies, several organisations have their global headquarters based in Glenrothes. Public services and service industries are also important to the town’s economy.
Major employers include Bosch Rexroth (hydraulics manufacturing), Brand Rex (fibre optics manufacturing), Fife College (education), Raytheon (defence and electronics) and Tullis Russell (papermakers). Glenrothes is unique in Fife as the majority of the town’s centre+ is contained indoors, within Fife’s largest indoor shopping centre+, the Kingdom Shopping Centre.
The town has won multiple horticultural awards in the “Beautiful Scotland” and “Britain in Bloom+” contests for the quality of its parks and landscaping. It has numerous outdoor sculptures and artworks, a result of the appointment of town artists in the early development of the town. Public facilities include a sports centre+, two golf courses, a civic centre+ and theatre+, a cinema+ and a college campus.
The A92 trunk road+ provides the principal access to the town passing through Glenrothes and connecting it to the wider Scottish motorway and trunk road network. A major bus station is located in the town centre providing regional and local bus services to surrounding settlements.
The name Rothes comes from the association with the north-east Scotland Earl of Rothes, family name Leslie. The Leslie family historically owned much of the land upon which Glenrothes has been built and their family name gave the adjacent village of Leslie its name. Glen (from the Scottish Gaelic word ‘gleann’ meaning valley) was added to prevent confusion with Rothes in Moray and to reflect the location of the town within the Leven valley.
The different areas (precincts) of Glenrothes have been named after the hamlets already established (e.g. Cadham, Woodside), the farms which once occupied the land (e.g. Caskieberran, Collydean, Rimbleton) or historical country houses in the area (e.g. Balbirnie, Balgeddie, Leslie Parks).
Glenrothes was designated in 1948 under the New Towns (Scotland) Act 1946 as Scotland’s second post-war new town. The primary reason for the designation of Glenrothes was to house mining families who would supply the labour for a newly established coal mine. The development of the new town was largely driven by a national energy strategy created by the British Government following the Second World War. The concept was further advanced in a report produced in 1946 by Sir Frank Mears+ to the Central and South-East Scotland Planning Committee. This made the case for a new town in the Leslie-Markinch area to support growth in the coal mining industry in Fife.
The planning, development, management and promotion of the new town was the responsibility of the Glenrothes Development Corporation (GDC), a quango appointed by the Secretary of State for Scotland.Cowling. The corporation board consisted of eight members including a chairman and deputy chairman. The first meeting of the GDC was in Auchmuty House, provided by Tullis Russell on 20 June 1949.
The original plan was to build a new settlement for a population of 32,000 to 35,000 people. The land which Glenrothes now occupies was largely agricultural and once contained a number of small rural communities and the hamlets of Cadham and Woodside which were established to house workers at local paper mills. Originally the new town was going to be centred on Markinch, however the village’s infrastructure was deemed unable to withstand the substantial growth required to realise a new town. Leslie and Thornton were also considered as possible locations, but finally an area of between all of these villages was zoned for the new town’s development. Much of the historical Aytoun, Balfour, Balgonie and Rothes estates were incorporated into Glenrothes’ assigned area along with the historical country houses Balbirnie House, Balgeddie House and Leslie House. Prior to the development of Glenrothes the main industries in the area were papermaking, coal mining and farming.
The first town masterplan sub-divided the town’s designated area into self-contained residential precincts with their own primary schools, local shops and community facilities. Separating industry as far as possible from housing areas in planned industrial estates was a key element of the plan.This was a step change from the unplanned, congested and polluted industrial towns and cities of the previous centuries where cramped unsanitary housing and dirty industries were built in close proximity to one another. The vision for Glenrothes was to provide a clean, healthy and safe environment for the town’s residents.
The Rothes Colliery, the new coal mine associated with the town’s development, was built on land to the west of Thornton, an established village south of Glenrothes. The mine which was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1957 was promoted as being a key driver in the economic regeneration of central Fife. However, un-stemmable flooding and geological problems in the area combined with a lessening demand for coal nationally had a significant impact on the viability of the mine which resulted in its eventual closure in 1965. Ironically, miners who had worked in older deep pits in the area had fore-warned against the development of the Rothes Pit for this very reason.
The coal mine’s closure almost resulted in further development of Glenrothes being stopped. However shortly following the closure Central Government decided to change the town’s role by appointing Glenrothes as one of the economic focal points for Central Scotland as part of a National Plan for economic growth and development. The Glenrothes Development Corporation were successful in attracting a plethora of modern electronics factories to the town as a consequence. The first big overseas electronic investor was Beckmans Instruments in 1959 followed by Hughes Industries in the early 1960s. A number of other important companies followed establishing Glenrothes as a major hub in Scotland’s Silicon Glen+. During the middle of the 1970s, the town also became the headquarters of Fife Regional Council, effectively the county town of Fife, taking over the role from Cupar.
Unlike other post-war Scottish new towns; Cumbernauld, East Kilbride, Irvine or Livingston, Glenrothes was not originally to be a Glasgow overspill new town, although it did later take this role. It was however populated in the early 1950s in part by mining families moving from the declining west of Scotland coalfield areas.
Major industrial estates were developed to the south of Glenrothes, largely due to the proximity to the proposed East Fife Regional Road (A92) which was developed in 1989 giving dual carriageway access to the main central Scotland road network. The Silicon Glen era peaked in the 1990s with Canon developing their first UK manufacturing plant at Westwood Park in Glenrothes in 1992. ADC Telecommunication, a major American electronics company, established a base at Bankhead in early 2000 with the promise of a substantial number of jobs.
The GDC left a lasting legacy on the town by overseeing the development of 15,378 houses, of industrial floorspace, of office floorspace and of shopping floorspace. Since the demise of the GDC Glenrothes continues to serve as Fife’s principal administrative centre and serves a wide area as a service, employment and retail centre. Glenrothes gained national publicity in 2009 by winning the Carbuncle Award following an unofficial contest operated by Urban Realm and Carnyx Group which was set up to criticise the quality of built environments in Scotland. The judges of the contest awarded Glenrothes the category of the most dismal place in Scotland for its “depressed and investment starved town centre”. This generated mixed views from locals and built environment professions alike. Contrary to this the town has also won awards for the “Best Kept Large Town” and the most “Clean, sustainable and beautiful community” in Scotland in the Beautiful Scotland competition and was the winner in the “large town” category in the 2011 Royal Horticultural Society Britain in Bloom competition. The town continued its horticultural success by achieving a second Gold award in the 2013 UK finals.
History of local government in Scotland
In the early years of the creation of the new town the Glenrothes Development Corporation (GDC) with input from the local authority, then Fife County Council, oversaw the governance of the new town. In the early 1990s the then Conservative UK Government established a wind-up order for all of the UK’s new town development corporations. Responsibilities for the assets, management and governance of all of the new towns were to be transferred to either private sector companies or to the local authorities or other government organisations. The GDC was finally wound up in 1995 after which responsibility for Glenrothes was largely transferred to Fife Council with some assets such as the Kingdom Shopping Centre, industrial and office units sold off to private sector companies.
Glenrothes is currently represented by a number of tiers of elected government. North Glenrothes Community Council and Pitteuchar, Stenton and Finglassie Community Council form the lowest tier of governance whose statutory role is to communicate local opinion to local and central government. Glenrothes now lies within one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. The town is headquarters of Fife Council which is the executive, deliberative and legislative+ body responsible for local governance. Council meetings take place in Fife House (formerly known as Glenrothes House) in the town centre. The west wing of the building was built by the Glenrothes Development Corporation (GDC) as their offices in 1969, which was later used as the headquarters of Fife Regional Council.Since the last Scottish election in 2012, Fife Council is governed by a minority Labour party, claiming a total of 35 seats, with the support of Conservative and Independent Councillors. Councillor Alex Rowley was elected leader of Fife Council and Jim Leishman has taken the role as Fife Council’s Provost. The SNP and the other parties form the opposition.
Glenrothes forms part of the county constituency of Glenrothes, electing one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first past the post system. Lindsay Roy of the Labour Party is the MP for Glenrothes. For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament+, Glenrothes forms part of the Mid Fife and Glenrothes constituency following the 2011 Scottish elections. This newly formed constituency replaces the former Central Fife constituency taking in the Leven, Largo and Kennoway ward and excluding the Buckhaven, Methil and Wemyss Villages ward. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament+ (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation. The constituency is represented by Tricia Marwick, MSP and Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament, formally of the SNP.
The northern parts of the settlement lie upland on the southern fringes of the Lomond Hills Regional Park. The central parts of the town extend between the southern edge of the River Leven valley; a substantial green space which passes east west through the town, and the Warout Ridge. Southern parts of Glenrothes are largely industrial and are situated on land which gently slopes south towards the Lochty Burn and the village of Thornton.
The Glenrothes area’s geology is predominantly made up by glacial deposits with the subsoil largely consisting of boulder clay with a band of sand and gravel in the area to the north of the River Leven. The river valley largely comprises alluvium+ deposits and there are also igneous intrusions of olivine dolerite throughout the area. Productive coal measures were largely recorded in the southern parts of Glenrothes, approximately south of the line of the B921 Kinglassie road. These coal measures form part of the East Fife coalfield and prior to 1962 the deposits there were to be worked by the Rothes Colliery, until it was found that there were severe issues with water penetration and subsequent flooding. Smaller limestone coal outcrops that had been historically worked were recorded around the Balbirnie and Cadham/Balfarg areas with the land that is now Gilvenbank Park found particularly to be heavily undermined.
Landscaping around the town has included the blending of housing into the northern hillside through the use of structural planting and tree belts.. A linked network of semi-natural landscape areas throughout the town allow for a mix of biodiversity with different flora and fauna and wildlife habitats. Areas of ancient woodland are found in Riverside Park and Balbirnie Park, both of which are also designated historic gardens and designed landscapes. Balbirnie Park is renowned for having a large collection of rhododendron species. Protected wildlife species found in the Glenrothes area include red squirrels+,water voles+ and various types of bats. Landscape areas also act as natural drainage systems, reducing the likelihood of flooding in the built up areas of the town, with rainwater flows channelled to the River Leven, or to the Lochty Burn. Landscape planning+ has also ensured that Glenrothes’ road network, with particular focuses on the town’s many roundabouts, provides green networks throughout the town.
The settlement has been purposely planned using a series of masterplans. Development of Glenrothes started in Woodside in the east and progressed westwards. The first town masterplan was implemented as far as South Parks and Rimbleton housing precincts. Early residential precincts were based on Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City philosophy, using relatively tried and tested principles of town planning and architecture which is reflected in their housing styles and layouts.
A second town masterplan was developed in the late 1960s following Glenrothes’ change of role and was to accommodate an increased population target of 50,000-70,000. New areas of land in the north and south of the designated area were brought into production for new development.Glenrothes Development Corporation, 1970, p.90. The road network was upgraded to deal with projected increases in car ownership and new housing estates were developed to the west, then to the south and finally to the north of the designated area. The housing precincts of the 1960s and 1970s, developed under the second masterplan, departed slightly from the garden city ideals instead adopting Radburn principles; separating as far as possible footpaths from roads. The townscape changed with a mixture of higher densities and more contemporary architectural styles and new development layouts. The fronts of houses were designed to face onto public footpaths and open spaces with car parking kept either to the rear of properties or in parking bays located nearby. Housing precincts from the 1980s onwards were largely developed by the private sector+ with the majority of this housing developed in low density suburban cul-de-sacs+. The Mid Fife Local Plan is guiding the future development of the town and has identified land in the east and west of the settlement and its surrounding villages for the development of approximately 1,800 new houses. There are also proposals for renewal of the town centre and for upgrading the town’s industrial estates and business parks.
In 1950 the population in the Glenrothes designated area was approximately 1,000 people who were located in the hamlets of Woodside and Cadham and in the numerous farm steadings that were spread throughout the area. Population growth in the early phases of the town was described as being slow due to the dependence on the growth of work places at the Rothes Colliery. In 1960 the town population was shown to have increased to 12,499 people rising to 28,098 by 1969. The town experienced its greatest levels of population growth between 1964 and 1969 with an average inward migration level of 1,900 persons per annum. In 1981 Glenrothes’ population was estimated to have risen to 35,000 and at the time the GDC was disbanded in 1995 it was estimated that the town’s population stood at just over 40,000 people.
The 2001 census recorded the population of Glenrothes at 38,679 representing 11% of Fife’s total population. The 2011 census shows the population has risen slightly to 39,277 . The wider Glenrothes area had a population of 49,727 in 2001. The total population in the Glenrothes area is estimated at 50,771 based on 2011 mid year estimates from the National Records of Scotland. The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 30-44 year olds form the largest portion of the population (23%). The median age of males and females living in Glenrothes in 2001 was 36 and 37 years, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.
The place of birth of the town’s residents was 97% United Kingdom (including 88.28% from Scotland), 0.26% Republic of Ireland, 1.04% from other European Union countries, and 1.69% from elsewhere in the world. The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 44.2% in full-time employment, 11.3% in part-time employment, 4.8% self-employed, 5.2% unemployed, 2.3% students with jobs, 3.2% students without jobs, 13.6% retired, 5.5% looking after home or family, 7% permanently sick or disabled, and 3.1% economically inactive for other reasons. Compared with the average demography of Scotland, Glenrothes has low proportions of people born outside the United Kingdom and has fewer proportions for people over 75 years old.
A study undertaken by Heriot-Watt University in 2004 estimated that the average gross weekly wage in the town was £433, which was 5% lower than the Fife average of £455. A more recent study undertaken by Heriot-Watt University in 2008 showed a rise in local average gross weekly wage to £450, against a Fife average of £449 and a Scottish average of £468. Wages are reflective of the type of jobs available locally, including higher than average employment in manufacturing and the public sector. The working age population of the Glenrothes area in 2009 was 31,078, which represents 62.1% of the total population. The employment rate, as a percentage of the working age population in the Glenrothes area is 79.3%, compared against the Fife average of 70.9%.
At November 2013 there was a recorded 1,049 Jobseekers Allowance+ (JSA) claimants in the Glenrothes area. This figure demonstrates an annual drop of over 400 claimants from the 2012 recorded level representing the largest reduction of all the committee areas in Fife. Recent Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation+ (SIMD) figures indicate that Auchmuty, Cadham, Collydean, Macedonia and Tanshall areas in Glenrothes fall within the 10-15% banding of deprived communities in Scotland. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation figures in 2012 records the percentage of local population that is employment deprived at 14.5% against a Fife and Scottish Average of 12.8%. The percentage of the local population that is income deprived in 2012 was recorded at 15.7% against a Fife and Scottish average of 13.4%.
The Glenrothes area’s economy largely comprises manufacturing industries, health and public sector jobs and moderate levels of employment in financial and business services, construction and retail. The number of people employed in Glenrothes is around 24,400; approximately 15% of the 163,000 jobs in Fife. Glenrothes is recognised for having the main concentration of specialist manufacturing and engineering companies in Fife. There are large concentrations of employment sites in the south of the town and at sites close to the town centre. Major employment areas in Glenrothes include: Bankhead, Eastfield, Pentland Park, Queensway, Southfield, Viewfield, Westwood Park and Whitehill. At 1 April 2010 there were a total of 916 office and industrial premises in and around Glenrothes, of which 680 (74%) were occupied.
Wholesale and retail distribution jobs accounted for approximately 15% of the total number of jobs in the local economy in 2009. The majority of shopping, retail services and administrative facilities in Glenrothes are concentrated in the town centre (central business district). The Kingdom Centre+ forms the main shopping element of the town centre containing approximately 100 shop units and is anchored by a Dunnes+ department store. Planning permission has been granted for an extension of the Kingdom Centre to accommodate a major supermarket development. A variety of cafes, the town’s central library and the Rothes Halls- the town’s theatre, civic and exhibition centre are also located within the shopping centre and an independent cinema+ and bingo hall complex are located adjacent to it. A ten-pin bowling facility will also be available in the town centre with an announcement to refurbish and reopen the former Fraser bowling alley facility at Albany Gate.
The town centre has expanded beyond its original boundaries into the adjacent Queensway employment area. A number of commercial operators including the town’s major supermarkets and a large bingohall complex are located in Queensway.
The town’s largest retail employers are Asda and Morrisons, which both trade from large stores at Queensway. A retail park+ has also been constructed at the Saltire Centre, approximately half of a mile (1 km) to the southwest of the town centre.
Service industries also add to the town’s economic mix, with the largest single employers being in the ‘accommodation and food services’ sector. Balbirnie House Hotel and Balgeddie House Hotel are the largest hotel operators in the immediate area. In total there are 20 accommodation establishments in the Glenrothes area providing over 600 bedspaces. Business administration services represent 4% of the total number of jobs in the town.
A number of public service agencies and authorities are based in Glenrothes contributing to the town’s administrative centre function. Police Scotland+ has established its Fife Division headquarters in Glenrothes at Viewfield. HM Revenue and Customs+, Kingdom Housing Association and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) also have offices in Glenrothes at Pentland Park; a business park within the town.Ferguson, 1996, p.57. Fife College is also a key employer in Glenrothes with a large campus based adjacent to Viewfield. Fife Council is a major employer in the locality with its prominent local authority headquarters building located in Glenrothes town centre. Many of the other council departments are contained in a number of the town centre’s office blocks and a major depot and office facility is located at Bankhead.
In 2010 manufacturing accounted for 20% of employment in Glenrothes. Traditional industries exist in the area, with paper+ manufacturing being one of the town’s largest employers. Tullis Russell is the largest paper manufacturer in the area and has operated from its current site for over 200 years, pre-dating the development of Glenrothes. The current facility is made up by an agglomeration of two former mills; the Auchmuty Mill and the Rothes Mill. The company completed the development of a 65 megawatt biomass+ powerstation in 2013 which generates enough electricity to power the plant and the surrounding town. A smaller paper manufacturer, Fourstones Paper Mill, has established operations at the Fettykil Mill in Leslie to the west of the town.
A number of high tech+ industrial companies are located in Glenrothes largely specialised in electronics+ manufacturing. These are what remain of the clustering of Silicon Glen+ operations in the area which has gradually reduced and consolidated since the peak in the late 1990s. The number of people employed in the electronics sector in the Glenrothes area in 2009 was 1,425 which constitutes approximately 50% of the number of jobs in this sector in Fife.
Companies specialised in this sector include Semefab which produces Micro Electric Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Brand Rex which specialises in the development of fibre optic cabling. Other major companies which have established a base in Glenrothes include Bosch Rexroth (hydraulics manufacturing), Raytheon+ (defence industry/electronics), Fife Joinery Manufacturing Ltd and Velux (roof windows manufacturing).
In 1968 Glenrothes was the first town in the UK to appoint a town artist. This is now recognised as playing a significant role, both in a Scottish and in an international context, in helping to create the idea of art being a key factor in creating a sense of place. Two town artists, David Harding (1968–78) and Malcolm Roberston (1978–91), were employed in the lifetime of the GDC. Both artists, supported by a number of assistants, created a large variety of artworks and sculptures that are scattered throughout the town. Other artists have also contributed to the creation of the town’s artworks. The first sculpture erected in Glenrothes was “Ex Terra”, created by Benno Schotz. “The Good Samaritan” sculpture in Riverside Park was produced by Edinburgh based sculptor, Ronald Rae, who was commissioned by the GDC to produce a piece of art work in celebration of the town’s 40th anniversary in 1988.
The town has won numerous awards locally and nationally for the quality of its landscaping; something that is promoted by the “Take a Pride in Glenrothes” (TAPIG) group. The Glenrothes Development Corporation devoted around one third of land in Glenrothes to the provision of open space. As a consequence the town has numerous parks, the largest being Balbirnie Park, Carleton Park, Gilvenbank Park, Riverside Park, and Warout Park. The Lomond Hills+ Regional Park borders and enters the town to the north and east.
The Glenrothes and Area Heritage Centre established a permanent base in November 2013 following a series of successful temporary exhibitions held previously in the town centre. The heritage centre is run by local volunteers and operates from a shop unit in the Kingdom Shopping Centre. It focuses on the history of the Glenrothes area from a period between the early 19th century to the late 20th century.
A war memorial was constructed in Glenrothes in 2007 following the deaths of two local Black Watch+ soldiers in Iraq. Prior to this Glenrothes was in the unusual position of not being able to host its own Remembrance Sunday commemorations. Unlike traditional memorials, the Glenrothes war memorial consists of two interlinking rings of standing stones.
The Rothes Halls complex is the town’s main theatre, exhibition, conference and civic centre venue. The town’s central library and a cafe also form part of the complex. For a short period, a community cinema operated at the Rothes Halls on a monthly basis. The success of the community cinema revived interest for a permanent cinema in the town again. This resulted in a new cinema opening in 2010 giving the local population access to the latest film releases.
The town has a large variety of established sports facilities including two 18-hole golf courses (Glenrothes and Balbirnie), a football stadium at Warout and a major sports complex, the Michael Woods Sports and Leisure Centre.Ferguson, 1996, pp.64-68. The new centre was named after the late SNP Councillor Michael Woods in a controversial decision taken by the Glenrothes Area Committee. The local football club is the Glenrothes F.C.+, a junior+ side who play at Warout Park. Glenrothes also has a rugby club based at Carleton Park and a cricket club who play at Riverside Park.Ferguson, 1996, p.103. The Road Running Festival in Glenrothes is the largest annual sporting event in the town with over 1500 people of all ages and levels of fitness taking part and has been held annually since 1983.
Glenrothes has a twin-town link with Böblingen+, a city in Baden-Württemberg+ in Germany+ since 1971. As early as 1962 a local councillor had suggested that the town might “twin” with a town on the Continent+.Ferguson, 1982, pp.104-106. Some years later a friendship grew up between teachers at Glenrothes High School and the ‘Gymnasium’ in Böblingen which eventually led to the twinning of the towns. Since then there have been a number of exchanges on official, club and personal levels.
Famous people associated with the town include the actor Dougray Scott+ who grew up in Glenrothes and attended Auchmuty High School. Douglas Mason+, known as one of the engineers of the “Thatcher revolution” and the “father of the poll tax” set up home in Glenrothes in the 1960s and spent most of his adult life living there. John Wallace, who became Principal of the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama (now the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland) in 2002 and is a famous trumpeter, played in the town’s Tullis Russell Mills Band. Henry McLeish, the former First Minister of Scotland lived in Glenrothes, having been brought up in nearby Kennoway. Glenrothes town centre is home to the building involved in the notorious Officegate scandal, which ultimately led to McLeish’s resignation as First Minister in 2001.
The most prominent landmarks in Glenrothes are the River Leven Bridge, the Tullis Russell factory chimneys, Raeburn Heights; a residential tower block and Fife House; an office block, both of which sit at the western corners of the town centre. The River Leven Bridge, which spans Riverside Park and carries the town’s Western Distributor Road, is a cable-stayed bridge+ that was completed in 1995. The bridge was designed by Dundee based Nicoll Russell Studios, Architects+ and was commissioned by the Glenrothes Development Corporation (GDC) as a landmark creating a gateway into Riverside Park that could be seen from further afield. The bridge was constructed by Balfour Beatty Construction (Scotland) and it was the first reinforced-concrete cable-stayed structure ever built in the UK.
A number of Glenrothes’ artworks and sculptures act as landmarks at major gateways into the town, such as the “Giant Irises” at Leslie Roundabout, and the Glenrothes “Gateway Totum” at Bankhead Roundabout. Former town artist Malcolm Robertson produced the “Giant Irises” sculpture as Glenrothes’ contribution to the Glasgow Garden Festival+. The sculpture was the winner of the John Brown Clydebank award for the “Most Original and Amusing Artifact” and following the festival, it was re-erected at Leslie Roundabout. A number of other sculptures were relocated in 2011 to more visually prominent locations around the town creating new landmarks. Four pieces of Glenrothes artworks have been awarded listed status+ by Historic Scotland+. “Ex Terra” has been listed at Category B and the “The Birds”, “The Henge” and “Work” (or Industry, Past and Present) at Category C. Historic Scotland has also produced a website, a video and an information brochure dedicated to the Glenrothes town art.
Glenrothes is home to the remains of ancient stone circles+ which can be seen at Balbirnie and Balfarg in the northeast of the town. The Balfarg henge was constructed around 3,000BC and contains the remnants of a stone circle which has been partly reconstructed.
The henge was excavated between 1977 and 1978 prior to the development of a new housing estate. The Balbirnie henge which is only located approximately 500m away from Balfarg was excavated between 1970 and 1971. In order to allow widening of the A92 the stones were moved a short distance to a new location at North Lodge and reconstructed as nearly as possible in the original way. The stone circle has been carbon dated as being from the bronze age+. It is thought that the Balbrinie stone circle and the Balfarg circle once formed part of a larger ceremonial complex.
There are a number of former stately homes located in Glenrothes. Balbirnie House, the category-A listed Georgian+ former home of the Balfour family, was bought along with its grounds in 1969 by the GDC from the Balfour family+ to be developed as Balbirnie Park and golf course. The house was later occupied and restored by the GDC in 1981, to stop the property falling into disrepair. This led to potential interest and the house was converted into a four-star hotel in 1989. The B-listed former stable block of the house was converted into a craft centre. Balgeddie House, a C-Listed former Edwardian+ residence of Sir Robert Spencer Nairn located in the northwest of the town, has also been converted into a high quality hotel. Leslie House, the category-A listed 17th century former home of the Leslie family+, became a care home for the elderly in 1945; owned by the Church of Scotland. The building was in the process of being renovated, when the interior and roof of the house were destroyed by a fire in February 2009. This has put the redevelopment on hold. Much of the former grounds of Leslie House have been used to create Riverside Park.
Collydean precinct hosts a ruin of a 17th-century house called Pitcairn House which was built for and first occupied by Archibald Pitcairne famous Scottish physician.
The town is also home to a number of churches which act as important landmarks as a result of their unique architectural styles and sometimes their locations at key road junctions. The three earliest churches are now listed buildings+. These are St. Margaret’s Church in Woodside (category C listed), St. Paul’s RC Church in Auchmuty (category A listed), and St. Columba’s Church on Church Street (category A listed) in the town centre.. St. Paul’s RC was designed by architects Gillespie, Kidd and Coia+ and has been described as “the most significant piece of modern church architecture north of the English Channel”. In 1993 it was listed as one of sixty key monuments+ of post-war+ architecture by the international conservation organisation DoCoMoMo+. The church sits at a junction between two main distributor roads. St Columba’s Church, designed by architects Wheeler and Sproson, underwent significant restoration in 2009. Internally the church contains a large mural created by Alberto Morrocco+ titled ‘The Way of the Cross’, which was completed in 1962. Externally the church with its distinctive triangular iron bell tower and Mondrian+ inspired stain glass windows acts as a landmark at the south-western gateway to the town centre.
Early precincts in the town were served by their own primary schools which were to be provided on the basis of one school for every 1,000 houses. The first primary school to be opened in Glenrothes was Carleton Primary School, built in 1953 in Woodside. In total thirteen primary schools were developed in the town, twelve of which are non-denominational and one which serves catholic pupils.
There are three secondary schools in Glenrothes, the earliest of which is Auchmuty High School+, opened in 1957. Secondary Schools were to be provided on the basis of one school for every 4,000 houses. Glenwood High School+ was built in 1962 to serve the western precincts. Prior to 1966 older pupils had to attend schools in neighbouring towns to continue “Higher” examinations as Auchmuty and Glenwood only provided for pupils at junior secondary level. Glenrothes High School+ was built in 1966 to accommodate pupils at a higher level. However changes in the education system nationally meant that both Auchmuty and Glenwood were raised to full high school status in the 1970s. Auchmuty High School serves the east and southern parts of Glenrothes as well as the villages of Markinch, Coaltown of Balgonie and Thornton. As part of the £126 million Building Fife’s Future Project a replacement for Auchmuty was completed and opened to pupils in 2013. Glenrothes High School serves the central and northern areas in the town. Glenwood High School serves the western parts of Glenrothes and the villages of Leslie and Kinglassie. Catholic pupils in Glenrothes attend St Andrew’s High School in neighbouring Kirkcaldy.
Further education in the town is provided at Fife College; created in August 2013 from the merger between the former Adam Smith College and Carnegie College which was based in Dunfermline. Construction of a Glenrothes college campus began in the early 1970s, originally specialising in paper manufacturing, mechanical engineering and electrical engineering courses. A second institute known as FIPRE (Fife Institute of Physical and Recreational Education) was built adjacent catering for sport and physical education as well as providing a sports centre for the town. The Glenrothes campus of the college is located at Stenton Road in Viewfield. A smaller campus also exists within the Southfield Industrial Estate. The Stenton Road Campus was significantly extended in 2010 with the development of the “Future Skills Centre”. This centre includes new departments in engineering, construction, renewables and science to cater for emerging industries specialising in renewable energy and low carbon technologies as well as provide training for major engineering projects.
Glenrothes has a planned road network with original masterplans establishing the principle that “through traffic” be bypassed around the housing precincts by a network of “Freeway” and “Highway” distributor roads. These would connect each precinct to the purposely designed town centre and to the industrial estates.Glenrothes. A purposely designed pedestrian and cycle system was also created using a network of ring and radial routes throughout the town. Another element that was adopted was the use of roundabouts at junctions instead of traffic lights which would allow traffic to flow freely.
The town has direct dual-carriageway access to the M90+ via the A92+ Trunk Road. The A92 passes north/south through the town and connects Glenrothes with Dundee in the north and Dunfermline in the southwest where it merges with the M90. This gives Glenrothes a continuous dual-carriageway link to Edinburgh, whilst much of the route north to Dundee remains single-carriageway. The A911 road passes east/west through the town and connects it with Levenmouth in the east and Milnathort+ and the M90 in the west. The B921 Kinglassie Road, described in early masterplans as the Southern Freeway, links Glenrothes to the former mining communities of Cardenden and Kinglassie+, and to Westfield. The route is a dual carriageway between Bankhead Roundabout and as far west as Fife Airport. Early masterplans show that this route was originally intended to be upgraded to provide duelled connections to the A92 Chapel junction in Kirkcaldy, however this has never been implemented.
The town has a major bus station in the town centre providing frequent links to the cities of Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Perth as well as to surrounding towns and villages. Two railway stations on the edge of the main town serve the Glenrothes area – Glenrothes with Thornton railway station+ and Markinch railway station. Glenrothes is home to an airfield, Fife Airport (ICAO+ code EGPJ), which is used for general aviation with private light aircraft. Edinburgh Airport is the nearest international airport+ to Glenrothes, Dundee Airport operates daily flights to London, Birmingham and Belfast.
[source – http://shelf3d.com/i/Glenrothes]